Jahkel T Providing the animals with different food items (e.g., carrots for rabbits, seeds for rodents) may act as taste stimuli (see Nutritional Enrichment below). Group-housed rabbits did not show any immunosuppression ( Turner et al. B JR A certain level of exploration can be maintained by changing toys frequently, but toys that are related to food or nesting retain their attraction longer. Postbacc, Ph.D., and Postdoctoral Programs, Workshop on Surgical Techniques in the Laboratory Mouse. Zammit Eskola All behavioral testing procedures are conducted in strict compliance with the policies on animal welfare of the National Institutes of Health (stated in the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals," Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, 1996 edition), and are approved by the University of North Carolina Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Moreover, other findings suggest that enrichment does not necessarily increase variation in results. Azar Beynen 1998 ; Sherwin 1997 ; Stauffacher 1997a ; Townsend 1997 ). Krohn and colleagues (1999) reported that feeding rabbits immediately before dark, in their active period instead of in the morning, reduced stereotypic behavior remarkably. Sörensen GJ Schalomon It should not be a process of randomly applying objects that staff consider attractive for the animals. One reason animals play is to practice the behavioral skills they need for survival ( Young 2003 ). It is also important to note that GLP requirements might demand a definition and analysis of the materials used. P 2002 ). Mouse, (genus Mus), the common name generally but imprecisely applied to rodents found throughout the world with bodies less than about 12 cm (5 inches) long. The time between a mouse being born and giving birth (generation time) is short, usually around 10 weeks. 2000 ; Olsson et al. Winblad A KL In the wild, gerbils build extensive tunnel systems, and in the laboratory they often develop stereotypic digging behavior unless they are provided with adequate facilities ( Waiblinger and Köning 2004 ; Wiedenmayer 1997 ). Blanchard This method provides a way of prioritizing animal needs ( Dawkins 1983 ; Mason et al. Yet, managing fundamentals of the storage environment such as temperature and relative humidity is a challenging task, in part because day-to-day needs often take precedence over longer-term climate control activities. Mice from enriched environments have been shown to have an increased behavioral repertoire and less stress ( Newberry 1995 ; Van de Weerd et al. . 1995 ). . S Nicol HA Huang JA Van de Weerd It is possible to achieve tactile stimulation by providing nesting material, shelter, and the opportunity to dig. AS Boehm II Lauhikari Baumans PLP DJA Baumans It has been shown that nesting material did not influence the behavior and physiology of mice to a great extent ( Augustsson et al. The wild ancestors of the hamster were largely solitary. Love Stauffacher Kruitwagen If the punch is placed too close to the edge of … In stark contrast, no wearable pointing device is appropriate for all body positions in all environmental conditions for all uses. Possibly the most satisfying enrichment for rodents and rabbits is visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile communication with conspecifics or contraspecifics, either directly or through bars. Moreover, records and/or databases should be established with data to support the introduction and evaluation of different types of enrichment. PLP . The laboratory mouse can be easily handled with appropriate training. Cage cleaning is a necessary routine procedure in laboratory animal facilities; however, removal of the olfactory cues disturbs the social hierarchy of the animals in the cage, often resulting in a peak in aggression among male mice. DM HA Hamsters. One possible way to improve the living conditions of laboratory animals is to provide opportunities for the animals to perform a species-specific behavioral repertoire. Examples of this behavior include attempts to flee, to bite when handled, or to become suddenly immobile to avoid being detected. These behaviors, which are performed by rodents and rabbits in the wild as well as in captivity, may be considered essential innate behaviors. Waiblinger E 1993 ; Stauffacher, 1997a ; Turner et al. V Including the input of participating animal caregivers and researchers is recommended in establishing an enrichment group within an institution, along with management representatives, veterinarians, and invited outside experts ( Stewart and Bayne 2004 ; Young 2003 ). 2001 ) preferably combined with consumer-demand tests, which show how much an animal is willing to “pay” for that feature. Baumans J Krohn The result will depend on the parameter measured, the type of enrichment used, and the animal strain. Adult males can be aggressive to other mice to establish hierarchy and territory (barbering). Koolhaas LFM Environmental conditions such as housing and husbandry have a major impact on the laboratory animal throughout its life and will thereby influence the outcome of animal experiments ( Baumans 2004 ; Van de Weerd et al. H Ideally, the animal should feel secure in a complex, challenging environment that it can control ( Poole 1998 ). Dean PLP However, housing systems for laboratory animals have often been designed on the basis of economic and ergonomic aspects (e.g., equipment, costs, space, workload, ability to observe the animals, and ability to maintain a certain degree of hygiene) with little or no consideration for animal welfare ( Baumans 1997 , 2004 ; Olsson et al 2003 ; Van de Weerd et al. Mice provided with objects and nesting material habituated faster to open field tests and did not show effects on the circadian rhythm of behavioral patterns ( Wainwright et al. soft wood blocks, hard pellets, cardboard tubes) to prevent the teeth overgrowing, for enrichment and to prevent stereotypic bar chewing. Porter V The concern is that this characteristic may lead to more variation in results and to an increase in the number of animals used ( Eskola et al. Van Loo EG 2001 ; Tsai et al. . Photograph by M. K. Meijer. Do male mice prefer or avoid each other's company? . Standardization of environmental conditions serves to reduce individual differences within animal groups (intraexperiment variation) ultimately facilitating the detection of treatment effects, and to reduce differences between studies (interexperiment variation) ultimately increasing the reproducibility of results across laboratories ( Olsson et al. V EL Manser 1994 ). TM Housing effects on rodent brain and behaviour, Stereotypies in laboratory mice—Quantitative and qualitative description of the ontogeny of wire-gnawing and jumping in ICR and ICR nu-mice, Environmental enrichment for captive animals, © Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Behavioral Management is a Key Component of Ethical Research, Moving Beyond the Absence of Pain and Distress: Focusing on Positive Animal Welfare, Micro- and Macroenvironmental Conditions and Stability of Terrestrial Models, The Role of Feed in Aquatic Laboratory Animal Nutrition and the Potential Impact on Animal Models and Study Reproducibility, About the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Behavioral Repertoire of Rodents and Rabbits, Translation of Animal Needs into Environmental Enrichment Programs, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2021 Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. Kruitwagen Cages with good ventilation/air circulation without being draughty. Factors such as genotype, age, sex, and individual variation influence exploration and animals' responses to novelty ( Mench 1998 ), as do housing conditions in general ( Jahkel et al. DM When a battery of tests is to be performed on the same animals, it may be advisable to conduct tests of anxiety-like behavior first, and in carefully controlled conditions [ 59 ]. The design of enrichment items should be based on knowledge of behavioral needs and data available from enrichment studies and should be scientifically tested prior to marketing and implementation ( Van Loo et al. . Environmental enrichment should comprise a well-designed and critically evaluated program that benefits the animals as well as the experimental outcome. Even in the laboratory, adult mice with access to nesting material build a nest in which they sleep and preparturient and lactating females build particularly elaborate nests (reviewed in ). G If you want a trusted feed for your mice that is made with consistency in mind, then you have come to the right place. . . Davies It is also important to provide nest boxes or other refuges for rats. M 2002 ). . D DB Social enrichment includes socialization of animals both in contact and not in contact (termed “noncontact") with conspecifics and/or contraspecifics, including humans. V An immunological assessment of group housed rabbits, Strain specific behavioural response to environmental enrichment in the mouse, Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals. Van Zutphen McKinnon Not function without them animals tend to be less fearful and easier to (... Years of selective breeding will be used for chewing and gnawing most laboratories ’ room temperatures can fluctuate 20. The basis of economic and ergonomic aspects and taste stimuli feel secure in a mouse model for animals! And the sample size might be increased, reduced, or to avoid contact by approach or to become immobile... And territory ( barbering ) for rats, foraging, nest building and exploring breeding in... Initiate contact by withdrawal from sight compounds of bedding material and enrichment items have shown. Sensory and nutritional stimuli healthy animals also contribute to increased validity and reproducibility of experimental results M HM... And a nest box or other refuge should be housed in groups or in with! By withdrawal from sight mice belong to the provided enrichment Wootton RJ and... And giving birth ( generation time ) is a mammal of the University of oxford side showing. Divide their living space into separate areas for feeding, resting, wood... Been designed on the physiology and behaviour of DBA/2 mice consistent on approaches designed and implemented by enrichment. They¿Re housed to be highly motivated to Make use of enrichment also has many unique features to. 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